European financial instruments to support business and investment, and the role of national development banks
The crisis we are experiencing is due, in large part, to excess private debt, in turn a consequence of an abnormal growth in financial leverage (the ratio between equity and debt). The debt has put the economic system under stress, with three main effects:
This has created a "vicious cycle" among the main sectors of the economy (banks, businesses and public sector) that seems bound to have negative long-term consequences on growth.
Increasing capital in the economy
To revive the economy, the following need fresh capital:
What can the public sector do, together with the private sector, to facilitate this process?
In general, especially in Europe, we need to create the best possible conditions to attract and activate domestic and foreign investment. The conditions for achieving this are now well-known:
This Report deals mainly of the third type of intervention: the role that large development banks and European public and public/private agencies – either independently and/or together with the EIB and the European Commission – have had in creating financial instruments to provide capital to the economy and catalyse private investment and savings on national and international markets.
The role of these institutions is becoming increasingly important to ensure the necessary resources to meet the economy’s demand for capital, in the light of the difficulties faced by the private sector in increasing their commitments in venture capital and of the public sector in implementing economic policies to support the economy.
European development banks
The major European development banks are financially solid institutions that, while operating on a market footing, are characterised by being instruments of government policy rather than simply being profit-oriented. This enables them to:
Moreover, their activities should be regarded as complementary and not in competition with the market, given the need to intervene in cases of market failure. Accordingly, there is therefore no danger of a “crowding out” of private capital.
The housing market in Italy, with a focus on the social housing sector
Following the economic-financial crisis of 2007 and after a long phase of expansion supported by low mortgage interest rates, the Italian real estate market began facing difficulties as a result of a major decrease in both the purchase of housing and in real estate prices.
Development projects and financial instruments